Recomendações de exercício físico após adoecimento por COVID-19: revisão de escopo

Autores

  • Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Physical Education, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3393-1074
  • Jhennifer Carolina de Almeida Alves Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Physical Education, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9277-696X
  • Renata Neli Moreno Gurginski Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Physical Education, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4446-8866
  • Thaymara Mikuni Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Physical Education, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3552-7622
  • Danieli Zata Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Physical Education, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3000-3109
  • Paula Lucia Magalhães da Silva Albuquerque University of Cuiabá, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
  • João Ricardo Gabriel de Oliveira Federal University of Mato Grosso, Department of Physical Education, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Centro Mato-grossense Faculty, Sorriso, Mato Grosso, Brazil. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7143-5421

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12820/rbafs.27e0243

Palavras-chave:

SARS-CoV-2, Treinamento físico, Reabilitação

Resumo

Além dos efeitos agudos, o adoecimento por COVID-19 pode deixar sintomas e sequelas persistentes por um longo período. O exercício físico pode ser uma importante contramedida durante o processo de recuperação de doenças, porém pouco se sabe a respeito dos efeitos dessa prática em pessoas convalescentes da COVID-19. O presente estudo apresenta uma revisão de escopo de recomendações para a prática de exercícios físicos após adoecimento por COVID-19 (fases aguda e pós-aguda). Foi realizada uma busca eletrônica nas bases: Cochrane, PEDro, PubMed, SciELO, Sport Discus e Web of Science. A leitura do título e resumo, dos artigos na íntegra e extração dos dados foi realizada por dois revisores independentes. Foram encontradas 445 referências, sendo 16 estudos incluídos na versão final. Entre os estudos incluídos, são citados com maior frequência: 1) recomendações para maiores de 18 anos, com diferentes graus de acometimento; 2) reabilitação à distância e uso de equipamentos de proteção individual nos procedimentos de biossegurança; 3) testes de aptidão física e avaliações clínicas; 4) saturação de oxigênio e a frequência cardíaca para monitoramento da sessão; 5) programas com mais de um tipo de exercício (multicomponente), sendo os exercícios aeróbios e de força os mais indicados, e; 6) necessidade de prescrição individualizada e intervenção multiprofissional. O programa de reabilitação deve considerar as peculiaridades individuais e a gravidade da COVID-19, com prescrição centrada na melhoria geral. Baseados em estudos frágeis, a eficácia do exercício físico na reabilitação após COVID-19 não pode ser confirmada. Ensaios clínicos randomizados controlados devem ser realizados.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

WHO. World Health Organization Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard:https://covid19.who.int/; 2021. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/.

Datta PK, Liu F, Fischer T, Rappaport J, Qin X. SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and research gaps: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the ACE2 receptor and implications for therapy. Theranostics. 2020;10(16):7448-64.

Kai H, Kai M. Interactions of coronaviruses with ACE2, angiotensin II, and RAS inhibitors-lessons from available evidence and insights into COVID-19. Hypertens Res. 2020;43(7):648-54.

Nalbandian A, Sehgal K, Gupta A, Madhavan MV, McGroder C, Stevens JS, et al. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat. Med. 2021;27(4):601-15.

Higgins V, Sohaei D, Diamandis EP, Prassas I. COVID-19: from an acute to chronic disease? Potential long-term health consequences. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2020:1-23.

Garrigues E, Janvier P, Kherabi Y, Le Bot A, Hamon A, Gouze H, et al. Post-discharge persistent symptoms and health-related quality of life after hospitalization for COVID-19. J Infect. 2020;81(6):e4-6.

Huang C, Huang L, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Gu X, et al. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;397(10270):220-32.

Carfì A, Bernabei R, Landi F. Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19. Jama. 2020;324(6):603-5.

Tenforde MW, Kim SS, Lindsell CJ, Billig Rose E, Shapiro NI, Files DC, et al. Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multistate Health Care Systems Network - United States, March-June 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(30):993-8.

van der Sar-van der Brugge S, Talman S, Boonman-de Winter L, de Mol M, Hoefman E, van Etten RW, et al. Pulmonary function and health-related quality of life after COVID-19 pneumonia. Respir Med. 2021;176:106272.

Ma YF, Li W, Deng HB, Wang L, Wang Y, Wang PH, et al. Prevalence of depression and its association with quality of life in clinically stable patients with COVID-19. J Affect Disord. 2020;275:145-8.

Pedersen BK, Saltin B. Exercise as medicine - evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25 Suppl 3:1-72.

Kvam S, Kleppe CL, Nordhus IH, Hovland A. Exercise as a treatment for depression: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016;202:67-86.

Villella M, Villella A. Exercise and cardiovascular diseases. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2014;39(2-3):147-53.

Anderson L, Oldridge N, Thompson DR, Zwisler AD, Rees K, Martin N, et al. Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Coronary Heart Disease: Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(1):1-12.

Paneroni M, Simonelli C, Vitacca M, Ambrosino N. Aerobic Exercise Training in Very Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;96(8):541-8.

Beckwée D, Delaere A, Aelbrecht S, Baert V, Beaudart C, Bruyere O, et al. Exercise Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia. A Systematic Umbrella Review. J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(6):494-502.

Larun L, Brurberg KG, Odgaard-Jensen J, Price JR. Exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4(4):Cd003200.

Chou CH, Hwang CL, Wu YT. Effect of exercise on physical function, daily living activities, and quality of life in the frail older adults: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012;93(2):237-44.

Jing X, Chen J, Dong Y, Han D, Zhao H, Wang X, et al. Related factors of quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018;16(1):189.

Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Geigle PM, Berlanstein DR, Topaloglu O, Gotay CC, et al. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2012(8):Cd007566.

Bo W, Xi Y, Tian Z. The role of exercise in rehabilitation of discharged COVID-19 patients. Sports Med Health Sci. 2021.

Calabrese M, Garofano M, Palumbo R, Di Pietro P, Izzo C, Damato A, et al. Exercise Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in COVID-19 Patients with Cardiovascular Complications: State of Art. Life (Basel). 2021;11(3).

Demeco A, Marotta N, Barletta M, Pino I, Marinaro C, Petraroli A, et al. Rehabilitation of patients post-COVID-19 infection: a literature review. Journal of International Medical Research. 2020;48(8):0300060520948382.

Goodwin VA, Allan L, Bethel A, Cowley A, Cross JL, Day J, et al. Rehabilitation to enable recovery from COVID-19: a rapid systematic review. Physiotherapy. 2021.

Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O'Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, et al. PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation. Ann Intern Med. 2018;169(7):467-73.

Chen JM, Wang ZY, Chen YJ, Ni J. The application of eight-segment pulmonary rehabilitation exercise in people with Coronavirus Disease 2019. Front. Physiol. 2020;11.

Hermann M, Pekacka-Egli A-M, Witassek F, Baumgaertner R, Schoendorf S, Spielmanns M. Feasibility and Efficacy of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation After COVID-19. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2020;99(10):865-9.

Udina C, Ars J, Morandi A, Vilaro J, Caceres C, Inzitari M. Rehabilitation in adult post-covid-19 patients in post-acute care with therapeutic exercise. J Frailty Aging. 2021;10(3):297-300

Alschuler L, Chiasson AM, Horwitz R, Sternberg E, Crocker R, Weil A, et al. Integrative medicine considerations for convalescence from mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disease. Explore (NY). 2020.

Feng F, Tuchman S, Denninger JW, Fricchione GL, Yeung A. Qigong for the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of Covid-19 infection in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2020;28(8):812-9.

Frota AX, Vieira MC, Soares CCS, da Silva PS, da Silva GMS, Mendes F, et al. Functional capacity and rehabilitation strategies in Covid-19 patients: current knowledge and challenges. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 2021;54.

Greve JMD, Brech GC, Quintana M, Soares ALD, Alonso AC. Impacts of Covid-19 on the immune, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal systems and rehabilitation. Rev. bras. med. esporte. 2020;26(4):285-8.

Mohamed AA, Alawna M. Role of increasing the aerobic capacity on improving the function of immune and respiratory systems in patients with coronavirus (COVID-19): A review. Diabetes Metab. Syndr.: Clin. Res. Rev. 2020;14(4):489-96.

Wang TNJ, Chau B, Lui M, Lam GT, Lin N, Humbert S. Physical medicine and rehabilitation and pulmonary rehabilitation for COVID-19. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2020;99(9):769-74.

Siddiq MAB, Rathore FA, Clegg D, Rasker JJ. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients: A scoping review of current practice and its application during the pandemic. Turk J Phys Med Rehabil. 2020;66(4):480-94.

Thomas K. Rehabilitation following covid-19: part 2: practical applications. Co-Kinetic Journal. 2020(85):22-31ii.

Carda S, Invernizzi M, Bavikatte G, Bensmail D, Bianchi F, Deltombe T, et al. COVID-19 pandemic. What should Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine specialists do? A clinician's perspective. Eur. J. Phys. Rehabil. 2020;56(4):515-24.

McGregor G, Sandhu H, Bruce J, Sheehan B, McWilliams D, Yeung J, et al. Correction to: Rehabilitation Exercise and psycholoGical support After covid-19 InfectioN' (REGAIN): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 222021. p. 96.

Barker-Davies RM, O'Sullivan O, Senaratne KPP, Baker P, Cranley M, Dharm-Datta S, et al. The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation. Br. J. Sports Med. 2020;54(16):949-59.

Roman-Belmonte JM, De la Corte-Rodriguez H, Rodriguez-Merchan EC, Munoz-De la Torre E, Vazquez-Sasot A. Strengthening with blood flow restriction: can it be a useful option in the rehabilitation of patients with coronavirus? Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2020;8(4):553-6.

Salini S, Russo A, Biscotti D, Broccatelli M, D'Elia M, Savera G, et al. Professional sport players recover from coronavirus and return to competition: hopes for resuming a normal life after COVID-19 for older people. Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2020;68(4):212-5.

Walle-Hansen MM, Ranhoff AH, Mellingsæter M, Wang-Hansen MS, Myrstad M. Health-related quality of life, functional decline, and long-term mortality in older patients following hospitalisation due to COVID-19. BMC Geriatrics. 2021;21(1):199.

Setti L, Passarini F, De Gennaro G, Barbieri P, Perrone MG, Borelli M, et al. Airborne Transmission Route of COVID-19: Why 2 Meters/6 Feet of Inter-Personal Distance Could Not Be Enough. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 172020.

Sajgalik P, Garzona-Navas A, Csécs I, Askew JW, Lopez-Jimenez F, Niven AS, et al. Characterization of aerosol generation during various intensities of exercise. Chest. 2021;160(4):1377-87.

Caristia S, Ferranti M, Skrami E, Raffetti E, Pierannunzio D, Palladino R, et al. Effect of national and local lockdowns on the control of COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review. Epidemiol Prev. 2020;44(5-6 Suppl 2):60-8.

Sjödin H, Johansson AF, Brännström Å, Farooq Z, Kriit HK, Wilder-Smith A, et al. COVID-19 healthcare demand and mortality in Sweden in response to non-pharmaceutical mitigation and suppression scenarios. Int J Epidemiol. 2020;49(5):1443-53.

Mustapa A, Justine M, Latir AA, Manaf H. Home-Based Physical Activity in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Scoping Review. Ann Rehabil Med. 2021;45(5):345-58.

Romano A, Di Rosa G, Tisano A, Fabio RA, Lotan M. Effects of a remotely supervised motor rehabilitation program for individuals with Rett syndrome at home. Disabil Rehabil. 2021:1-11.

Grossman GB, Sellera CAC, Hossri CAC, Carreira LTF, Avanza AC, Jr., Albuquerque PF, et al. Position Statement of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology Department of Exercise Testing, Sports Exercise, Nuclear Cardiology, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation (DERC/SBC) on Activities Within its Scope of Practice During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020;115(2):284-91.

Lio CF, Cheong HH, Lei CI, Lo IL, Yao L, Lam C, et al. Effectiveness of personal protective health behaviour against COVID-19. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):827.

Haraf RH, Faghy MA, Carlin B, Josephson RA. The Physiological Impact of Masking Is Insignificant and Should Not Preclude Routine Use During Daily Activities, Exercise, and Rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2021;41(1):1-5.

Higashimoto Y, Ando M, Sano A, Saeki S, Nishikawa Y, Fukuda K, et al. Effect of pulmonary rehabilitation programs including lower limb endurance training on dyspnea in stable COPD: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Investig. 2020;58(5):355-66.

Machado A, Matos Silva P, Afreixo V, Caneiras C, Burtin C, Marques A. Design of pulmonary rehabilitation programmes during acute exacerbations of COPD: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eur Respir Rev. 2020;29(158).

Downloads

Publicado

2022-02-18

Como Citar

1.
Prado AKG, Alves JC de A, Gurginski RNM, Mikuni T, Zata D, Albuquerque PLM da S, Oliveira JRG de. Recomendações de exercício físico após adoecimento por COVID-19: revisão de escopo. Rev. Bras. Ativ. Fís. Saúde [Internet]. 18º de fevereiro de 2022 [citado 3º de dezembro de 2022];27:1-12. Disponível em: https://rbafs.org.br/RBAFS/article/view/14729

Edição

Seção

Artigos de Revisão